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      飼料霉菌毒素對家禽的危害,不容小覷

      來源: 赤峰和美嘉科技有限公司  點擊:23 發布時間:2017-2-14


        霉菌毒素是霉菌在生長過程中產生的有毒化學物質,在畜禽體內可產生多種毒副作用—肝毒、腎毒、對中樞神經系統的作用以及類似雌激素效應等。當霉菌毒素在飼料中達到一定濃度即會危害畜禽的身體健康和生產性能,即使濃度較低情況下,其與各種應激因子相互作用也可使動物出現各種亞臨床發病癥狀,此種情況甚至比直接表現出來的急性作用帶來的損害更為嚴重。

            常見的霉菌毒素有:黃曲霉毒素,玉米赤霉烯酮,赭曲霉毒素,T-2毒素,嘔吐毒素,煙曲霉毒素等。

            <1>霉菌毒素能引起法氏囊、胸腺和脾臟等免疫器官萎縮,誘發免疫抑制。引起新城疫、流感等免疫失敗。 

             <2>霉菌毒素會造成經常性的拉稀,腸道病久治不愈,飼料便頻繁發生,采食量大大減少,體重大大下降。 

             <3>霉菌毒素具有極強的腐蝕性,對消化道的破壞相當嚴重。能引起口腔潰瘍,嗉囊的炎癥以及病情后期的假膜,潰瘍性以及增生性腺炎,腺胃與肌胃交界處形成潰瘍,肌胃角質膜易剝離。角質膜增厚以及角質膜下形成出血潰瘍,腸道脆性增大,腸粘膜脫落、壞死。影響機體對營養物質的消化和吸收,飼料利用率和轉化率降低。 

             <4>霉菌毒素中毒可導致肝臟多灶性肝細胞壞死,肝細胞增生以及發病前期由于充血而呈暗紅色,后期由于脂肪聚集呈黃色,但不管發病前期與后期都為橡皮肝的感覺。膽囊黏膜由于膽小管的增生和壞死而發炎,出現膽囊脆性增大的現象 

             <5>霉菌毒素會造成種雞產蛋下降、蛋殼質量下降、受精率和孵化率下降,孵化中胚胎死亡多見;霉菌毒素通過減少肝臟卵黃前體的合成和轉運而對蛋雞產蛋造成影響,采食量的下降以及料價比的不合理是母雞性成熟延遲。 

            <6>霉菌毒素對腎臟的損害表現為腎小管發生變性而阻塞,產生尿酸鹽沉積,從而導致痛風癥的發生,不明病因腿病增多。 

            <7>霉菌毒素對血管壁的損傷使血壓上升,增加了心臟的負擔,使腹水癥多發。

            肝臟是機體主要的免疫器官、解毒器官、代謝器官和消化器官,一旦遭到損害,隨之引發一系列的病變,禽上表現為脂肪肝,也會引發畜禽的營養性腹瀉和過料等。

           所以,在目前養殖環境下,保護家禽的肝膽健康顯得尤為重要。飼料中添加膽汁酸一方面可以緩解肝臟的壓力,保證肝臟正常功能的發揮;另一方面,作為一種有效的殺菌劑,膽汁酸能夠抑制大腸桿菌、鏈球菌及其它有害細菌的繁殖。此外,某些種類的膽汁酸如脫氧膽酸可以促進肝細胞分泌大量稀薄的膽汁,使膽道暢通,消除膽汁淤滯,起到利膽作用。



      The English version

      Mycotoxins are the mold in the process of growth of toxic chemicals, in animal body can produce a variety of side effects - poison toxic liver, kidney, and the function of the central nervous system similar to estrogen effect, etc. When reaches a certain concentration of mycotoxins in feed, which can endanger the health of livestock and poultry and production performance, even if the concentration is low, its interaction with various stress factor also can make the animal appear all kinds of clinical symptoms, the situation is even better than directly show the acute effects of the damage is more serious.

      Common mycotoxins are: yellow aspergillus toxin, corn gibberellic ketene, ochre and aspergillus toxin, T 2 toxin, vomiting toxins, smoke aspergillus toxin, etc.

      < 1 > mycotoxin can cause immune organs such as the bursa of fabricius, thymus and spleen atrophy, induce immunosuppression. Caused by Newcastle disease, such as influenza immune failure.  

      < 2 > mycotoxin causes frequent diarrhea, intestinal disease cured, feed frequently occur, greatly reduce feed intake, weight drops greatly.  

      < 3 > mycotoxins has strong corrosive, serious damage to the digestive tract. Can cause oral cavity ulcer, craw membrane in the late of inflammation and the disease sex gland inflammation, ulcer and hyperplasia gland stomach meets muscular stomach ulcer formation, muscular stomach cutin membrane easy tear. Cutin membrane thickening and cutin membrane formed under bleeding ulcer, intestinal brittleness increases, intestinal mucous membrane shedding, necrosis. Affect the body's digestion and absorption of nutrients, feed utilization rate and conversion rate reduced.  

      < 4 > mycotoxin poisoning can lead to liver multifocal liver cell necrosis, hyperplasia of liver cells and early disease due to congestion and dark yellow, late due to fat accumulation yellow, but regardless of the onset of early and late for rubber liver. The gallbladder mucosa due to bile duct hyperplasia and necrosis and inflammation, gallbladder brittleness increased

      < 5 > mycotoxin will cause the loss of chicken eggs, eggshell quality, fertilization rate and hatching rate decreased, incubation of embryonic death see more; Mycotoxin by reducing liver synthesis and transport of yolk precursor for laying hens lay eggs, feed intake declines and unreasonable material price ratio is the hen maturation delays.  

      < 6 > the damage to the kidney mycotoxins of renal tubule degeneration and block, produce uric acid salt deposition, leading to the onset of gout, unknown etiology leg disease increased.  

      < 7 > mycotoxin damage in blood vessel walls rise in blood pressure, increased the burden of heart, make the ascites syndrome happens.

      The liver is the body's immune organs, the main detoxifying organs, metabolic organs and digestive organ, once the damage, a series of pathological changes, may be associated with poultry performance for fatty liver, also cause livestock nutritional diarrhea and material, etc.

      So, in the current breeding environment, it is particularly important to protect poultry liver health. Bile acid is added to the feed, on the one hand, can alleviate the pressure of the liver, to give full play to normal liver function; On the other hand, as a kind of effective fungicide, bile acid can inhibit escherichia coli, streptococcus and other harmful bacteria breeding. In addition, some types of bile acid such as deoxycholic acid can promote liver cells secrete a large number of thin bile, the bile duct, eliminate bile clogged, cholagogic effect.


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