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      母豬便秘,是一種現象而并非是一種疾病

      來源: 赤峰和美嘉科技有限公司  點擊:30 發布時間:2017-2-9

        母豬便秘(干結)被認為是無關痛癢的小問題,沒有引起足夠的重視,報刊雜志也很少有這一類的研究和推廣性文章,顯得母豬便秘(干結)問題已得到解決或危害不大,然而,經過走訪河南、湖北、湖南、廣東、山東等養豬大省的不同養殖規模的養豬場,看到的實際情況令人不安——母豬便秘(干結)問題依舊比較嚴重,是導致當前疾病的罪魁禍首。


             母豬便秘是一種現象而并非是一種疾病,其實母豬已經進入病理狀態,如果不及時處理,進入病理狀態就會引起母豬的一系列疾病。如在便秘時,由于糞團在大腸內移動緩慢,水份過度被吸收,造成嚴重的排糞困難甚至不能排糞,引起母豬的一系列疾病。


      1、糞便發酵產生熱量會使直腸溫度升高,進而造成母豬體溫升高,不食或厭食。


      2、糞便發酵產生的毒素會損害機體的器官,引起各種炎癥,如子宮炎等,也會加劇母豬的乳房水腫現象,嚴重的會引起乳房炎。乳房炎及產生的毒素都會引起仔豬下痢。


      3、便秘會造成母豬厭食,進而引起母豬分娩無力,充滿糞便的直腸壓迫產道,兩者都會引起母豬難產,產死胎或流產。


      4、便秘會引起母豬精神沉郁或暴躁,母豬坐立不安,容易壓死、咬死、夾死仔豬。


      5、便秘會引起母豬營養不良,進而影響仔豬生長發育。


      6、母豬排便不暢,腸內殘留時間長導致有害細菌在糞便中大量繁殖,增加了母豬被感染的可能性,出現產后熱。產生蓄積酸中毒從而使母豬的利用年限縮短。


      一、母豬便秘的原因


      1、生理因素:


      母豬妊娠期相關的各種生理因素也會引起分娩前后母豬的便秘,如母豬的乳房水腫,妊娠母豬的內分泌狀態變化、母豬年齡、飼養管理因素特別是應激因素等都有可能引起母豬的便秘。


      2、母豬缺乏運動:


      特別是定位飼養造成母豬缺乏運動,加上環境突然變化所致的應激,使采食量和飲水減少,進而造成腸道運動紊亂而便秘。


      3、膳食纖維不足:


      顆粒過細、粗纖維含量不足、不喂青綠飼料,造成直腸蠕動減少,直腸中沒有足夠的水份而便秘。


      4、蛋白質過高:


      美國明尼蘇達大學畜牧學教授JerryShurson認為母豬由分娩前的低蛋白質日糧轉喂泌乳期高蛋白質日糧時,改變了大腸吸收和分泌液體的能力,使大腸變得滿實而便秘。


      5、微生態區系的不平衡:


      豬的腸道是一個復雜的內環境,包括食物的殘渣、分解產物、蛋白酶、免疫球蛋白、病毒、益生菌、致病菌及其代謝產物外毒素、內毒素等致病因子。在腸道內各成分處于一個平衡的狀態時,機體表現出健康狀態,當這種平衡受到沖擊而導致失衡時,機體則呈現不健康狀態。豬的腸道內有30多個屬,500多種微生物,主要包括需氧菌、兼性厭氧菌、厭氧菌3個部分。腸道中益生菌大部分以厭氧菌為主,主要有專性厭氧的雙歧桿菌屬、厭氧的乳酸桿菌屬、兼性厭氧的乳球菌屬、鏈球菌屬和腸球菌屬。厭氧菌在數量上占據很大的優勢,約為99%,兼性厭氧菌和需氧菌約為1%。


      抗生素的長期不正確的使用,在殺滅致病菌的同時,也殺死了益生菌,破壞了腸道微生態平衡,導致菌群生長失調。如腸道中有一種能將硫酸鹽還原為硫化氫的有害菌,使得硫化氫造成腸壁腐蝕,引發腸道慢性炎癥,胃腸蠕動減緩,飼料和營養的消化吸收率低,長期慢性腸炎會導致消化吸收不良,飼料報酬嚴重下降。


      便秘對腸道黏膜造成機械性損傷后,黏膜出血。大腸內大量細菌產生的外毒素和內毒素侵入血液后,容易引起細菌和病毒的外源性感染,導致母豬炎癥和抵抗力下降,所以當前母豬的便秘多是腸道益生菌過少、有害菌過多,腸道菌群失衡引起的,便秘會造成大量的細菌積存在腸道內,使腸道內的有害菌繁殖,形成有毒物質(內毒素Toxin) ,并隨血液一起循環流遍全身----引起毒血癥(Virus Diseases)。如,便秘后腸道內停留著大量的有害微生物(微生物制造毒素),在非便秘情況下,毒素可以隨糞便排出母豬體外。但是便秘后,體內過多毒素侵入豬的神經系統、皮膚黏膜……如:過量麥角毒素被吸收,使乳腺細胞分泌減少,功能喪失。T2進入乳腺組后,導致乳腺組織皮膚病變,誘發乳房炎,乳房炎及產生的毒素均會引起仔豬下痢。


      二、預防和治療措施


      考慮原因是各種因素的綜合作用,所以在防治上首先應采取如下措施:


      1、飼養母豬應做到細心管理,特別在夏季應給母豬供應豐富而充足的飲水。


      2、飼料應搭配均勻,很多豬場為了防止母豬便秘而增大了飼料中麩皮的比例,有個別品種豬場甚至達到30-40%的比例,其實,在實際中母豬發生便秘并非由麩皮不夠引起的,相反盲目增加麩皮用量反而會降低母豬的能量攝取,這對于夏天反而會加大母豬的熱應激,嚴重者還會發生產后不發情的現象。


      3、采用一些礦物鹽類緩瀉產品,如硫酸鎂、硫酸鈉及人工鹽等。缺點:副作用嚴重,通過腸道周圍組織內水分向腸道內的轉移,會引起其他相關組織的缺水,引起其它組織功能的非正;,如母豬產后無乳等癥狀。嚴重者造成母豬拉稀等情況。


      4.活性乳酸菌具有抑制病原菌、調節免疫、促進消化和吸收、改善飼料轉化率、降低舍內臭味等多項作用,通過微生物干預從生理上徹底解決母豬便秘問題。使乳豬初生重平均達1.5公斤以上,白痢減少75%,28天斷奶體重達10公斤以上(比正常增加2.5公斤);母豬斷奶后乏情或不發情現象減少90%,可提高經產母豬的胎次(由每年2.2胎提高到2.5胎)。



      The English version

      Sow constipation (hard) is considered to be innocuous small problems, no cause enough attention, newspapers and magazines are rarely has the research and popularization of this kind of articles, appear the sow constipation (hard) problem has been solved or harmless, however, after a visit to henan, hubei, hunan, guangdong, shandong and other different breeding pig big province scale pig farms, to see the actual situation of disturbing -- sow constipation (hard) problem is still serious, is the main culprit of the current disease.


      The sow constipation is a phenomenon which is not a disease, in fact, the sow has entered the pathological state, if not handled in time, into a series of disease pathology will cause the sow. When such as constipation, due to the manure in e. slow-moving, moisture is absorbed excessive, causing severe defecation difficult or even not defecation, a series of disease cause the sow.


      1, manure fermentation generate heat can make the rectal temperature, causing the sow body temperature, no food or anorexia.


      2, waste fermentation to produce toxins can damage the body organs, causing all sorts of inflammation, such as uterine inflammation, also exacerbate the sow breast swelling phenomenon, serious can cause mastitis. Mastitis and produce toxins can cause diarrhea piglets.


      3 can cause the sow anorexia, constipation, resulting in the sow childbirth is weak, and full of feces oppression rectum the birth canal, both can cause sows during childbirth, stillbirth or abortion.


      4, constipation causes sows spirit is depressed, or irritable, sow fidgeting, easy to kill, bite dead, dead piglets.


      5, constipation can cause malnutrition in sows, which affect the growth of piglets.


      6, the sow, defecate intestinal residue time lead to harmful bacteria multiply in the feces, increased the possibility of sows infected, puerperal fever. Produces acidosis which sows use fixed number of year of shortening.


      The reason why the, sow constipation


      1, physiological factors:


      Sows during pregnancy can also cause a variety of physiological factors associated sows before and after the birth of constipation, such as the sow breast swelling, the pregnancy sow state of endocrine factors, sow age, breeding management, especially stress factors are likely to cause the sow constipation.


      2, sow the lack of movement:


      Especially to locate breeding sows, lack of exercise, coupled with environmental stress caused by a sudden change, reduce feed intake and water, causing the bowel movement disorder and constipation.


      3, lack of dietary fiber:


      Particles interloper, crude fiber content is insufficient, don't feed the green feed, resulting in a decrease of the rectum peristalsis, there is not enough water in the rectum and constipation.


      4, high protein:


      Professor of animal science at the university of Minnesota JerryShurson think pigs from the low protein diet before delivery to feed lactation high protein diet, changed the large intestine fluid absorption and secretion capacity, make e. full solid and constipation.


      5, micro biota is imbalance:


      Pig intestines are within a complex environment, including food scraps, breakdown products, protease, immunoglobulin, viruses, probiotics, pathogenic bacteria and their metabolites toxins, endotoxin and other pathogenic factors. In intestinal all ingredients in a state of balance, the body health status, when the balance impact and cause imbalances, the body is not healthy. Pig intestines with more than 30 genera, 500 kinds of microorganisms, including aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria three parts. Most mainly anaerobic bacteria in the intestinal probiotics, mainly include: bifidobacterium obligate anaerobic, anaerobic lactic acid bacteria genera, facultative anaerobic milk coccus, streptococcus and enterococcus. Occupy a lot of advantages in terms of the anaerobic bacteria, about 99%, facultative anaerobe and aerobe is about 1%.


      Long-term incorrect use of antibiotics, while kill bacteria, also killed the probiotics, destroyed the intestinal microecological balance, causing bacteria growth disorders. If there is a will in the intestinal sulfate reducing harmful bacteria for hydrogen sulfide, the hydrogen sulfide to cause intestinal wall corrosion, cause chronic inflammation of the intestinal, gastric bowel peristalsis slow, feed and nutrition digestion absorption rate is low, a chronic, inflammatory bowel disease can lead to poor digestion, absorption, feed remuneration serious decline.


      Constipation of intestinal mucosa after mechanical damage, mucosal bleeding. A lot of time inside large intestine bacteria produce toxins and outside after blood endotoxin intrusion, and easy to cause exogenous bacteria and Virus infections, resulting in a decline in sow inflammation and immunity and so is more than the current sow constipation intestinal probiotics too little and too much harmful bacteria, intestinal flora imbalance caused by constipation can lead to accumulate a large number of bacteria in the intestines, make intestines of harmful bacteria breeding, formation of toxic substances (endotoxin Toxin), and with the blood circulation flow to all parts of your body - cause blood poisoning (Virus get Diseases). Such as constipation after stay with a lot of harmful microbes in the gut (microbial manufacturing toxins), in case of constipation, toxins can with droppings sows in vitro. But after constipation, the body of toxins into pigs too much nervous system, skin and mucous membrane... Such as: excessive ergot toxin is absorbed, make mammary gland cell secretion decline, loss of function. T2 after entering breast group, cause skin lesions, breast tissue to induce mastitis, mastitis and produce toxins can cause diarrhea piglets.


      Second, the prevention and treatment measures


      Considering the reason is that a combination of various factors, so on the prevention and control of first of all should take the following measures:


      1, breeding sows should do careful management, especially in the summer should supply the sow rich and plentiful water.


      2, feed should be uniform collocation, many pig farms in order to prevent the sow constipation and increased the proportion of feed bran, have particular breed farm and even up to 30-40% of the proportion, in fact, in practice, sow constipation occurred is not caused by not enough bran, instead blind increase bran dosage can reduce the energy consume of sows, instead it will increase the sow for the summer heat stress, serious postpartum not rutting phenomenon will occur.


      3, using some mineral salts HuanXie products, such as magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate and artificial salt, etc. Weakness: the side effects, through the intestinal tissues around water off to gut, can lead to other related organizations lack water, cause other organization function of normalization, symptoms such as sow postpartum without milk. Serious cause sows, diarrhea, and so on and so forth.


      4. The activity of lactic acid bacteria can inhibit pathogens, regulating immunity, promote digestion and absorption, improve feed conversion rate, reduce smell in the house, through microbial intervention from physical thoroughly solve the problem of the sow constipation. Make the Suckling pig average birth weight of 1.5 kg, could reduce 75%, 28 days weaning weight 10 kg (2.5 kg) more than the normal; Sow after weaning spent or rutting phenomenon reduced by 90%, improves the tire of multiparity sows time (from 2.2 to 2.5 births per year).

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