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      2016年霉菌毒素污染分析

      來源: 赤峰和美嘉科技有限公司  點擊:12次 發布時間:2016-11-7

          2016年10月黃曲霉毒素污染有加重趨勢;玉米副產物和配合料(豬)的玉米赤霉烯酮含量污染嚴重;小麥及副產物以及玉米副產物的嘔吐毒素污染嚴重,配合料(豬)污染也稍有加重趨勢。

      1 概述

          2016年10月,江蘇奧邁生物科技有限公司共收到來自安徽、江蘇、河南、天津、山東、湖南、廣東、江西等地的樣品219份(詳見表1),用酶聯免疫法進行了黃曲霉毒素B1、玉米赤霉烯酮、嘔吐毒素的檢測,并用液相法對可疑樣品進行了確認。飼料中霉菌毒素的限量標準見表2。


      2.1 黃曲霉毒素B1污染情況

          由圖1可以看出,2016年10月玉米和餅粕原料的黃曲霉毒素平均值超過了10μg•kg-1,有3份玉米黃曲霉毒素都超過了30μg•kg-1,污染十分嚴重;黃曲霉毒素B1污染范圍廣,污染率極高。從歷史數據來看(圖2),2016年10月玉米、餅粕以及玉米副產物黃曲霉毒素比上月均有上升趨勢,養殖戶和飼料廠需要提高對該三類原料黃曲霉毒素污染情況的關注。


      圖1 黃曲霉毒素B1平均值(μg·㎏-1

      圖2 黃曲霉毒素B1污染趨勢

      2.2 玉米赤霉烯酮污染情況

          由圖3可以看出,2016年10月玉米,玉米以及餅粕的玉米赤霉烯酮平均值低于100μg•kg-1,污染程度不高;玉米副產物的玉米赤霉烯酮毒素平均值超過400μg•kg-1,污染嚴重;小麥及副產物的平均值接近200μg•kg-1,其中有兩份次粉樣品玉米赤霉烯酮超過1000μg•kg-1。由歷史數據可以看出(圖4),2016年10月玉米副產物污染趨勢保持,總體變化不大。




      圖3 玉米赤霉烯酮平均值(μg·㎏-1


      圖4 玉米赤霉烯酮污染趨勢

      2.3 嘔吐毒素污染情況

          由圖5可以看出,2016年10月餅粕和玉米的嘔吐毒素平均值十分接近最高限量,污染嚴重,超標率為52.63%;小麥及副產物嚴重超標,平均值接近3500μg•kg-1,超標率達93.56%,污染十分嚴重。從歷史數據可以看出,嘔吐毒素污染情況持續了去年下半年的較高水平,尤其是玉米副產物、小麥及副產物的污染情況,實在不容樂觀。


      圖5 嘔吐毒素平均值(μg·㎏-1


      圖6 嘔吐毒素污染趨勢

      3 總結及建議

          建議持續關注玉米及豆粕的黃曲霉毒素污染情況,小麥及副產物和玉米副產物的嘔吐毒素污染情況;新玉米的霉菌毒素污染情況參差不齊,在大量使用時,建議多點取樣,實時監測;小麥、次粉及面粉的嘔吐毒素含量從2016年6月份就持續升高,養殖戶和各飼料企業也需做好相關措施,以避免產品嚴重污染情況。

          整體看來,飼料的霉菌毒素情況仍然不可忽視,一定要加強霉菌毒素的檢測力度,控制好原料的品質,加強飼料生產的管理,合理添加霉菌毒素吸附劑,防止飼料霉變引起對動物的危害,造成嚴重的經濟損失。



      The English version

      In October 2016, aflatoxin contamination has increasing trend; Corn by-products and batch (pigs) content of corn gibberellic ketene pollution is serious; Wheat and by-products, and corn by-products of vomiting toxins pollution is serious, the batch (pigs) pollution also slightly increasing trend.

      1 overview

      In October 2016, Mr Michael biological technology co., LTD in jiangsu received from anhui, jiangsu, henan, tianjin, shandong, hunan, guangdong, jiangxi and other places of the sample of 219 (see chart 1), enzyme league immune method is used for aflatoxin B1, corn gibberellic ketene, vomiting, toxin detection, suspicious samples confirmed with liquid phase method. The limitation standard of mycotoxins in feed are shown in table 2.




      2.1 aflatoxin B1 pollution

      From figure 1, you can see, in October 2016, corn, raw materials and cake of aflatoxin average more than 10 mu g kg 1, there are three corn aflatoxins are more than 30 mu g kg 1, pollution is very serious. A wide scope of aflatoxin B1 pollution, pollution rate is extremely high. From the historical data (figure 2), in October 2016, corn by-products, cake and aflatoxin have rise than last month, farmers and feed factory need to improve to the attention of aflatoxin contamination situation of the three kinds of raw materials.

      The average figure 1 aflatoxin B1 (mu) g. ㎏ - 1

      Figure 2 aflatoxin B1 pollution trend


      2.2 corn gibberellic ketene pollution

      Can be seen from figure 3, in October 2016, corn, corn, corn and cake gibberellic ketene average less than 100 mu g kg 1, pollution level is not high. Corn by-products of corn gibberellic ketene toxin averages more than 400 mu g kg 1, pollution is serious; Wheat and by-products, the average of nearly 200 mu g kg 1, there are two times of corn powder sample gibberellic ketene, more than 1000 mu g kg 1. Can be seen by the historical data (figure 4), October 2016 corn byproduct pollution trend remains, little change as a whole.


      Figure 3 corn gibberellic ketene average (mu) g. ㎏ - 1

      Figure 4 corn gibberellic ketene pollution trend

      2.3 vomiting toxins pollution

      Can be seen from figure 5, 10, 2016 moon cake meal and corn vomiting toxins mean value is very close to the maximum limits, pollution is serious, which is 52.63%; Wheat and by-products exceeds bid badly, average of nearly 3500 mu g kg 1, which was 93.56%, and the pollution is very serious. Can be seen from the historical data, vomiting toxins pollution continue to a higher level in the second half of last year, especially the by-products of the by-products of corn, wheat and pollution situation, it is not optimistic.

      Figure 5 average vomiting toxins (mu) g. ㎏ - 1

      3 summary and Suggestions

      Suggest continued focus on aflatoxin contamination situation of corn and soybean meal, wheat and by-products and corn by-products of vomiting toxins pollution; The mycotoxin contamination of new corn, when used in a lot of, suggest a multipoint sampling, real-time monitoring; Wheat, vomiting toxins of powder and flour content from June 2016 will continue to rise, farmers and the feed enterprises also need to prepare related measures, to avoid serious pollution.

      Whole, feed mycotoxins of still can not be ignored, must strengthen the detection of mycotoxin, good control the quality of raw material, strengthening the management of feed production, and reasonable to add mycotoxins adsorbent, prevent feed mildew caused harm to animals, causing serious economic losses.








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